Techniques for making adornments in the Middle Ages Goldmaking has been a distinct craft industry in Bulgarian cities throughout the Middle Ages. After XII century began specialization in various goldsmithing techniques: casting, forging and crushing, filigree and granulation. Along with them, the decorative work is made of engraving, awning, enamel, mounting of precious and semi-precious stones, gilding and casting. Many of the details of ornaments or whole jewels have been cast from gold, silver, copper, bronze or various alloys. Castings are most commonly made of stone and clay. This well-known technique has been used in many of the well-researched Bulgarian medieval towns as Veliko Tarnovo, Preslav, Cherven, Stara Zagora, Pernik and Melnik in its two varieties. Testimonies for this are the numerous stone molds found for casting of jewelery. In the first variation, casting was made on a wax model in clay molds, and the second one used single-sided or double-sided stone moldings in which the object was negatively shaped.
The purpose of this article is to summarize the finds of medieval molds from Bulgaria, comment on the ornaments produced by them and to illustrate this production with artifacts analogous to the models and details found in the molds.